Accounts receivable financing is an agreement that involves capital principal in relation to a company’s accounts receivables. Accounts receivable are assets equal to the outstanding balances of invoices billed to customers but not yet paid. Accounts receivables are reported on a company’s balance sheet as an asset, usually a current asset with invoice payment required within one year.
Accounts receivable are one type of liquid asset considered when identifying and calculating a company’s quick ratio which analyzes its most liquid assets:
Quick Ratio = (Cash Equivalents + Marketable Securities + Accounts Receivable Due within One Year) / Current Liabilities
As such, both internally and externally, accounts receivable are considered highly liquid assets which translate to theoretical value for lenders and financiers. Many companies may see accounts receivable as a burden since the assets are expected to be paid but require collections and can’t be converted to cash immediately. As such, the business of accounts receivable financing is rapidly evolving because of these liquidity and business issues. Moreover, external financiers have stepped in to meet this need.
The process of accounts receivable financing is often known as factoring and the companies that focus on it may be called factoring companies. Factoring companies will usually focus substantially on the business of accounts receivable financing but factoring in general may be a product of any financier. Financiers may be willing to structure accounts receivable financing agreements in different ways with a variety of different potential provisions.
Accounts receivable financing is becoming more common with the development and integrations of new technologies that help to link business accounts receivable records to accounts receivable financing platforms. In general, accounts receivable financing may be slightly easier for a business to obtain than other types of capital financing. This can be especially true for small businesses that easily meet accounts receivable financing criteria or for large businesses that can easily integrate technology solutions.